• Yusrinie Wasiaturrahmah Program Studi Kedokteran Gigi, Fakultas Kedokteran Gigi, Universitas Lambung Mangkurat, Banjarmasin
  • Aditya Maulana Perdana Putra Program Studi Farmasi, Fakultas MIPA, Universitas Lambung Mangkurat, Banjarbaru
  • Nahdha Nahdha Program Studi Farmasi, Fakultas MIPA, Universitas Lambung Mangkurat, Banjarbaru
  • Nahdiya Rahmah Program Studi Farmasi, Fakultas MIPA, Universitas Lambung Mangkurat, Banjarbaru
Keywords: Covid-19, Treatment Profile, Banjarmasin


Coronavirus 19, Knowing as COVID-19, is a disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). COVID-19 treatment is still limited to supportive and oxygen therapy. The use of drugs is on the complaints felt by patients and comorbidities. This study aims to look at drug use profiles in COVID-19 patients. This research was included in descriptive research with a retrospective cross-sectional design. This research data was the entire prescription sheet and medical records of COVID-19 patients for March-August 2020 that meet the inclusion criteria. The result from collecting COVID-19 patient data for March-August 2020 obtained 114 medical records that met the criteria for research inclusion. Research Result: Characteristics of study subjects of the male sex are more infected with COVID-19. The age range with the highest number of COVID-19 patients was 46-55 years. Treatment profiles often used in COVID-19 patients are Supplements and Vitamins for 6538 prescriptions and Antibiotics for 2813 prescriptions. The most prescribed supplements and vitamins are Vitamin C, Lakto B, Zinc, and Vitamin C. The most prescribed antibiotics are Azithromycin, Meropenem, and Levofloxacin. The conclusion obtained in this study is that Supplements and vitamins, and Antibiotics are the most prescribed drug class.


Shereen MA, Khan S, Kazmi A, Bashir N, Siddique R. COVID-19 infection: Origin, transmission, and characteristics of human coronaviruses. J Adv Res [Internet]. 2020;24:91–8. Available from:

World Health Organization. Covid-19 Situation Report. World Heal Organ. 2020;31(2):61–6.

Cascella M, Rajnik M, Aleem A, Dulebohn SC, Napoli R Di. Features, Evaluation, and Treatment of Coronavirus (COVID-19) [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022. Available from:

WHO. WHO Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Dashboard with Vaccination Data. [Internet]. 2022. p. 2022. Available from:

COVID-19 STP. Peta Sebaran COVID-19. [Internet]. 2022. p. 2022. Available from:

RI KK. Infeksi Emerging Kementerian Kesehatan RI. [Internet]. 2022. p. 2022. Available from:

Guo S, Liu K, Zheng J. The genetic variant of sars-cov-2: Would it matter for controlling the devastating pandemic? Int J Biol Sci. 2021;17(6):1476–85.

PDPI, PERKI, PAPDI, PERDATIN. Pedoman Tatalaksana COVID-19. 4th ed. Burhan E, Susanto AD, Isbaniah F, Nasution SA, Ginanjar E, Pitoyo CW, et al., editors. Jakarta; 2022.

Murdaca G, Pioggia G, Negrini S. Vitamin D and Covid-19: an update on evidence and potential therapeutic implications. Clin Mol Allergy [Internet]. 2020;18(1):1–8. Available from:

Schwalfenberg GK. A review of the critical role of vitamin D in the functioning of the immune system and the clinical implications of vitamin D deficiency. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2011 Jan;55(1):96–108.

Rondanelli M, Miccono A, Lamburghini S, Avanzato I, Riva A, Allegrini P, et al. Self-Care for Common Colds: The Pivotal Role of Vitamin D, Vitamin C, Zinc, and Echinacea in Three Main Immune Interactive Clusters (Physical Barriers, Innate and Adaptive Immunity) Involved during an Episode of Common Colds—Practical Advice on Dos. Schoop R, editor. Evidence-Based Complement Altern Med [Internet]. 2018;2018:5813095. Available from:

Grant WB, Lahore H, McDonnell SL, Baggerly CA, French CB, Aliano JL, et al. Evidence that Vitamin D Supplementation Could Reduce Risk of Influenza and COVID-19 Infections and Deaths. Vol. 12, Nutrients . 2020.

Zhang Y, Leung DYM, Richers BN, Liu Y, Remigio LK, Riches DW, et al. Vitamin D Inhibits Monocyte/Macrophage Proinflammatory Cytokine Production by Targeting MAPK Phosphatase-1. J Immunol [Internet]. 2012 Mar 1;188(5):2127 LP – 2135. Available from:

Tambunan AL, Siregar GA. Role of probiotic for prevention and management of COVID-19: A literature review. Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 2021;9(Cdi):620–8.

Kanauchi O, Andoh A, AbuBakar S, Yamamoto N. Probiotics and Paraprobiotics in Viral Infection: Clinical Application and Effects on the Innate and Acquired Immune Systems [Internet]. Vol. 24, Current Pharmaceutical Design. 2018. p. 710–7. Available from:

Hao Q, Lu Z, Dong BR, Huang CQ, Wu T. Probiotics for preventing acute upper respiratory tract infections. Cochrane Database Syst Rev [Internet]. 2011;(9). Available from:

Grudzien M, Rapak A. Effect of Natural Compounds on NK Cell Activation. J Immunol Res. 2018;2018:4868417.

Belkaid Y, Hand TW. Role of the Microbiota in Immunity and Inflammation. Cell [Internet]. 2014 Mar 27;157(1):121–41. Available from:

te Velthuis AJW, van den Worm SHE, Sims AC, Baric RS, Snijder EJ, van Hemert MJ. Zn2+ Inhibits Coronavirus and Arterivirus RNA Polymerase Activity In Vitro and Zinc Ionophores Block the Replication of These Viruses in Cell Culture. PLOS Pathog [Internet]. 2010 Nov 4;6(11):e1001176. Available from:

Hojyo S, Fukada T. Roles of Zinc Signaling in the Immune System. Mishra MK, editor. J Immunol Res [Internet]. 2016;2016:6762343. Available from:

Read SA, Obeid S, Ahlenstiel C, Ahlenstiel G. The Role of Zinc in Antiviral Immunity. Adv Nutr [Internet]. 2019 Jul 1;10(4):696–710. Available from:

Fukada T, Kambe T. Zinc Signals in Cellular Functions and Disorders. Vol. 9784431551, Springer 4. 2014. 1–343 p.

Barnett JB, Hamer DH, Meydani SN. Low Zinc Status: A New Risk Factor For Pneumonia in The Elderly? Nutr Rev [Internet]. 2010 Jan 1;68(1):30–7. Available from:

Shankar AH, Prasad AS. Zinc and Immune Function: The Biological Basis of Altered Resistance to Infection. Am J Clin Nutr [Internet]. 1998 Aug 1;68(2):447S-463S. Available from:

Calder PC, Carr AC, Gombart AF, Eggersdorfer M. Optimal Nutritional Status for a Well-Functioning Immune System Is an Important Factor to Protect against Viral Infections. Vol. 12, Nutrients . 2020.

Carella Angelo Michele, Benvenuto Angelo, Lagattolla Valeria, Marinelli Teresa, De Luca Pasquale, Ciavarrella Giuseppe, et al. Vitamin Supplements in The Era of SARS-Cov2 Pandemic. GSC Biol Pharm Sci. 2020;11(2):007–19.

Zhang L, Liu Y. Potential Interventions For Novel Coronavirus in China: A Systematic Review. J Med Virol [Internet]. 2020 May 1;92(5):479–90. Available from:

Isnani N. Pasien Common Cold Anak Di Instalasi Rawat. 2019;2(April 2019):82–8.

Yao X, Ye F, Zhang M, Cui C, Huang B, Niu P, et al. In Vitro Antiviral Activity and Projection of Optimized Dosing Design of Hydroxychloroquine for the Treatment of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Clin Infect Dis [Internet]. 2020 Jul 28;71(15):732–9. Available from:

Tran DH, Sugamata R, Hirose T, Suzuki S, Noguchi Y, Sugawara A, et al. Azithromycin, a 15-Membered Macrolide Antibiotic, Inhibits Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus Infection by Interfering With Virus Internalization Process. J Antibiot (Tokyo). 2019 Oct;72(10):759–68.

Beigelman A, Isaacson-Schmid M, Sajol G, Baty J, Rodriguez OM, Leege E, et al. Randomized Trial to Evaluate Azithromycin’s Effects on Serum and Upper Airway IL-8 Levels and Recurrent Wheezing in Infants With Respiratory Syncytial Virus Bronchiolitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015 May;135(5):1171-8.e1.

Cai M, Bonella F, Dai H, Sarria R, Guzman J, Costabel U. Macrolides Inhibit Cytokine Production by Alveolar Macrophages in Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organizing Pneumonia. Immunobiology. 2013 Jun;218(6):930–7.

Zarogoulidis P, Papanas N, Kioumis I, Chatzaki E, Maltezos E, Zarogoulidis K. Macrolides: From In Vitro Anti-Inflammatory and Immunomodulatory Properties to Clinical Practice in Respiratory Diseases. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2012 May;68(5):479–503.

Whitley RJ, Hayden FG, Reisinger KS, Young N, Dutkowski R, Ipe D, et al. Oral Oseltamivir Treatment of Influenza in Children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2001 Feb;20(2):127–33.

McClellan K, Perry CM. Oseltamivir: A Review of Its Use in Influenza. Drugs. 2001;61(2):263–83.

Instiaty, Sri Darmayani IGAAP, Marzuki JE, Angelia F, William, Siane A, et al. Antiviral Treatment of Covid-19: A Clinical Pharmacology Narrative Review. Med J Indones [Internet]. 2020;29(3):332–45. Available from:

How to Cite
Wasiaturrahmah Y, Putra A, Nahdha N, Rahmah N. PROFIL PENGGUNAAN OBAT PADA PASIEN COVID-19 DI SALAH SATU RUMAH SAKIT DI BANJARMASIN. JIFI [Internet]. 27May2022 [cited 7Jul.2022];5(1):149-58. Available from: