EFEKTIVITAS ANTIBIOTIK PADA PASIEN PNEUMONIA COVID-19 : STUDI OBSERVASIONAL

  • Farid Zulkarnain Nur Syah Program Studi Magister Farmasi Klinis, Fakultas Farmasi, Universitas Surabaya
  • Abdul Rahem Departemen Farmasi Praktis, Fakultas Farmasi, Universitas Airlangga
  • Anita Purnamayanti Laboratorium Klinis Komunitas, Fakultas Farmasi Universitas Surabaya
  • Rella Indah Karunia Program Studi Magister Farmasi Klinis, Fakultas Farmasi Universitas Surabaya
Keywords: Effectiveness, Azithromicyn, Levofloxacin, Pneumonia covid-19

Abstract

COVID-19 has become a deadly pandemic worldwide. The use of empiric antibiotics in cases of COVID-19 pneumonia has the risk of triggering bacterial resistance. The purpose of the study was to analyze the use of antibiotics used in cases of COVID-19 pneumonia. The design of the study was an observational study conducted retrospectively from June 2021 to August 2021. The subjects of the study were patients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia, as diagnosed by the doctor based on the results of a chest CT scan and PCR. The total number of research subjects was 111. The antibiotics used were azithromycin (n = 42) and levofloxacin (n = 69). There was no significant difference between the initial clinical condition of hospital admission in subjects receiving azithromycin and subjects receiving levofloxacin (p=0.098) based on the WHO clinical progression scale score. There was a significant difference between azithromycin and levofloxacin for the length of therapy (p = 0.000) and length of hospitalization (p = 0.004). There was a significant difference (p = 0.006) in clinical conditions based on WHO clinical progression scale scores before and after using azithromycin. There was no significant difference (p = 0.114) in clinical conditions before and after using levofloxacin. There was no significant difference in mortality (p = 0.275) between the two types of antibiotics. Subject mortality was not affected by gender, advanced age (> 65 years), and comorbid disease. Azithromycin is more effective in improving the clinical condition of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia compared to levofloxacin.

References

Bell, B. G. et al. (2014) “A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of antibiotic consumption on antibiotic resistance.,†BMC infectious diseases, 14, hal. 13. doi: 10.1186/1471-2334-14-13.

BPOM (2020) Informatorium Obat Covid-19 di Indonesia, Bpom Ri.

Brun, A. L. et al. (2021) “COVID-19 pneumonia: high diagnostic accuracy of chest CT in patients with intermediate clinical probability,†European radiology. 2020/10/03. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 31(4), hal. 1969–1977. doi: 10.1007/s00330-020-07346-y.

Buetti, N. et al. (2020) “Early administered antibiotics do not impact mortality in critically ill patients with COVID-19,†The Journal of infection. 2020/06/05. The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd., 81(2), hal. e148–e149. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2020.06.004.

Cozzi, D. et al. (2020) “Chest X-ray in new Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection: findings and correlation with clinical outcome,†La Radiologia medica. 2020/06/09. Springer Milan, 125(8), hal. 730–737. doi: 10.1007/s11547-020-01232-9.

Dinos, G. P. (2017) “The macrolide antibiotic renaissance,†British Journal of Pharmacology, hal. 2967–2983. doi: 10.1111/bph.13936.

Fatima, S. A. et al. (2020) “Comparison of efficacy of dexamethasone and methylprednisolone in moderate to severe covid 19 disease,†Annals of Medicine and Surgery, 60, hal. 413–416. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amsu.2020.11.027.

Fish, D. N. (2003) “Levofloxacin: Update and perspectives on one of the original ‘respiratory quinolones,’†Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy. Future Drugs Ltd, 1(3), hal. 371–387. doi: 10.1586/14787210.1.3.371.

Frei, C. R., Labreche, M. J. dan Attridge, R. T. (2011) “Fluoroquinolones in community-acquired pneumonia: Guide to selection and appropriate use,†Drugs, 71(6), hal. 757–770. doi: 10.2165/11585430-000000000-00000.

Gattinoni, L. et al. (2021) “COVID-19 pneumonia: pathophysiology and management,†European Respiratory Review, 30(162), hal. 210138. doi: 10.1183/16000617.0138-2021.

Jayawardena, R. et al. (2020) “Enhancing immunity in viral infections, with special emphasis on COVID-19: A review,†Diabetes & metabolic syndrome. 2020/04/16. Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd., 14(4), hal. 367–382. doi: 10.1016/j.dsx.2020.04.015.

Langford, B. J. et al. (2020) “Bacterial co-infection and secondary infection in patients with COVID-19: a living rapid review and meta-analysis.,†Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 26(12), hal. 1622–1629. doi: 10.1016/j.cmi.2020.07.016.

Lansbury, L. et al. (2020) “Co-infections in people with COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis.,†The Journal of infection, 81(2), hal. 266–275. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2020.05.046.

Metlay, J. P. dan Waterer, G. W. (2020) “Treatment of Community-Acquired Pneumonia During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic,†Annals of internal medicine. 2020/05/07. American College of Physicians, 173(4), hal. 304–305. doi: 10.7326/M20-2189.

Ni, Y.-N. et al. (2021) “The independent factors associated with oxygen therapy in COVID-19 patients under 65 years old,†PLOS ONE. Public Library of Science, 16(1), hal. e0245690. Tersedia pada: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0245690.

NIH (2021) “COVID-19 rapid guideline: managing COVID-19,†National Institute of Health and Care Excellence, hal. 1–78. Tersedia pada: https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and-.

Peters, D. H., Friedel, H. A. dan McTavish, D. (1992) “Azithromycin: A Review of its Antimicrobial Activity, Pharmacokinetic Properties and Clinical Efficacy,†Drugs, 44(5), hal. 750–799. doi: 10.2165/00003495-199244050-00007.

Rawson, T. M. et al. (2020) “Bacterial and Fungal Coinfection in Individuals With Coronavirus: A Rapid Review To Support COVID-19 Antimicrobial Prescribing.,†Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 71(9), hal. 2459–2468. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciaa530.

Scott, H. et al. (2022) “Bacterial infections and death among patients with Covid-19 versus non Covid-19 patients with pneumonia,†American Journal of Emergency Medicine. Elsevier Inc., 51, hal. 1–5. doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2021.09.040.

Sharma, S., Singh, A. dan Banerjee, T. (2021) “Antibacterial agents used in COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis,†Environmental Sustainability. Springer Singapore, hal. 1–11. doi: 10.1007/s42398-021-00194-6.

Sieswerda, E. et al. (2021) “Recommendations for antibacterial therapy in adults with COVID-19 - an evidence based guideline,†Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. 2020/10/01. The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases., 27(1), hal. 61–66. doi: 10.1016/j.cmi.2020.09.041.

Sultana, J. et al. (2020) “Azithromycin in COVID-19 Patients: Pharmacological Mechanism, Clinical Evidence and Prescribing Guidelines,†Drug safety. Springer International Publishing, 43(8), hal. 691–698. doi: 10.1007/s40264-020-00976-7.

Surendra, H. et al. (2021) “Clinical characteristics and mortality associated with COVID-19 in Jakarta, Indonesia: A hospital-based retrospective cohort study,†The Lancet Regional Health - Western Pacific. Elsevier Ltd, 9, hal. 100108. doi: 10.1016/j.lanwpc.2021.100108.

WHO, W. H. O. (2022) WHO Coronavirus (COVID-19) Dashboard | WHO Coronavirus (COVID-19) Dashboard With Vaccination Data. Tersedia pada: https://covid19.who.int/ (Diakses: 28 Januari 2022).

Published
2022-10-31
How to Cite
Syah, F., Rahem, A., Purnamayanti, A., & Karunia, R. (2022). EFEKTIVITAS ANTIBIOTIK PADA PASIEN PNEUMONIA COVID-19 : STUDI OBSERVASIONAL. Jurnal Ilmiah Ibnu Sina, 7(2), 241-250. https://doi.org/10.36387/jiis.v7i2.878
Section
Artikel